October, 13th 2020 programme
8:00 to 9:00 AM – Welcome
9:00 to 9:30 AM – Foreword : D. GREVEY & A. DEREUX
Inaugural lecture / UBFC Senior fellowship
The air we breathe contains volatile organic components (VOCs) that can help identify early serious diseases. Thus VOC detection by noninvasive real time methods is a major societal challenge and an exciting research field for future years. To meet this challenge we aim at developing a novel optical spectroscopy method based on the interference of two frequency combs (ultra-stable optical pulse trains) with slightly different repetition rates and tunable in the mid-infrared (Mid-IR) spectral range (2 to 5 microns) where molecular absorption is strong. Contrary to other interferometric techniques our approach avoids the need for very complex stabilization systems since the two combs are generated from a single continuous-wave laser intensity-modulated with two fast electro-optic modulators. The mutual-coherence requirement between the combs is thus naturally satisfied. Our scientifically ambitious idea is to generate such dual combs operating in the Mid-IR. Solution will rely on innovative techniques based upon near-infrared (1.55 microns) to Mid-IR wavelength conversion of dual combs. Our technique constitutes the most innovative instrumental advance in the field of spectroscopy. Molecular spectra can be recorded in a few microseconds with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The objective of our interdisciplinary research program is to design a functional portable Mid-IR dual comb spectrometer. We will explain the principle of operation of the spectrometer and then we will give some proofs of concept. Finally, we will show some application examples for the detection of pollutants and the analysis of exhaled air.
ISITE-Industry joint projects
Imagine that everyday objects can change shape independently or that it is possible to take a vase, split it in two and re-form two smaller vases! This is called programmable matter. To make this vision real, we build quasi-spherical millimeter size robots (3.6mm diameter) embedding a CPU, a battery, communication capabilities and able to latch to each other and move relatively to each other by rotating. In order to build objects, these robots must also be able to self-organize according to a predefined shape. Therefore, an algorithm is needed which is said to be distributed because it is executed by each robot or, in other words, distributed on each robot. The algorithm allowing to change shape is called a self-reconfiguration algorithm. Self-reconfiguration is a complicated algorithmic problem that leads to a combinatorial explosion making the search for an optimal impossible. In our project, we propose a method to build an object that can be used to make a mold for automotive parts.
An instrumentation in stress, displacement, temperature and acoustic emission was carried out on a press for the production of parts by fine cutting in order to extract the exact kinematics of cutting during the different phases of this one (plastic deformation, shearing, breakage, then withdrawal of the punch after cutting). Also, tribological parameters (contact pressure and sliding speed in particular) are now accessible and tests on laboratory tribometers can be carried out in order to explore other kinematics but also surface textures and specific lubricants in order to reduce the wear of the cutting punches.
Internet of Things, connected cars, intelligent parking systems, secured timing, connected cyber physical systems and air traffic control systems: these all rely more and more on software for flexibility and service delivery. However, these complex connected systems face significant challenges regarding security and reliability, and their increasing complexity means that the detection and remediation of business-logic vulnerabilities requires highly skilled R&D techniques and people.
The SARCoS project is developing advanced techniques and automated cognitive tools to test security and robustness at the business logic level, which strongly influences the way industry reduces vulnerabilities in these complex and increasingly connected systems.
The goal of the project is not to replace validation engineers, but to allow them to focus on producing complex attack and test scenarios, while providing test results in a more intelligent way. The overall result of the project will significantly reduce testing costs while increasing the efficiency of security testing for critical connected systems. The SARCoS project relies on the involvement of industrial partners in different application areas: intelligent parking systems, air traffic control systems, maritime control systems and secure time distribution systems.
Originally described by Lord Rayleigh in the field of acoustics and motivated by the whisper propagation under the dome of the Saint-Paul cathedral in London, whispering gallery modes are also observed in Optics. When trapped at the periphery of a high purity crystalline disc (typ. fluoride crystals) of a few millimeters diameter, a laser light can propagate over hundreds of thousands round trips covering a distance close to a kilometer, thanks to the total internal reflection of the disc periphery walls and provided the latter crystalline walls can be finely and cautiously polished down to nanometer roughness. This simple device exhibits amazing physical properties for the lightwave, whether linear or nonlinear. In the nonlinear case, a continuous wave laser light can be converted into an ultra-fast and ultra-regular pulsed output light beam corresponding in the Fourier spectral domain to a frequency comb made of equidistantly spaced comb teeth. In the linear case, the quality factor of the optical disc resonance can exceed a billion, allowing for an extreme sensitivity with respect to the physical parameters ruling the trapped propagating light, which makes the setup very attractive for metrology applications among others. More specifically in this latter linear regime, the rotation direction within the disc has to respect the always constant velocity of light. When comparing interferometrically a clockwise with a counter-clockwise propagating laser light beam, the comparison result allows for the ultra-precise measurement of any rotation angle of the disc itself, even if the latter rotation is simply the very slow one induced by the earth daily rotation. Such an innovative approach for an optical gyroscope presents potentially attractive technological advantages in terms of system compactness and measurement resolution for high added-value technological applications. The international French company iXblue, which photonic division is based in Besançon and stems from a spin-off company of the FEMTO-ST institute, is today a world leader of fiber optic gyroscope (involving a spool of kilometer long optical fibers) for high requirement markets such as inertial navigation for e.g. ships and submarines. The company is thus interested in developing a new solution for one of their important commercial activity, in the framework of an ISITE-industry proposal funded by the ISITE-BFC project.
11:00 to 11:30 AM: BREAK
In this talk, I will discuss some of my recent music cognition research. Learning to “sight read” standard notation, the written language of music, is a difficult but important skill that novice musicians acquire gradually over the course of several semesters of music training. However, research on human contingency learning outside of the music domain indicates that we are capable of learning regularities very rapidly, for instance, with certain “incidental” (non-deliberate) learning procedures. In recent work, we have been applying the same learning principles to sight reading training with musical stimuli. Using our novel music learning procedure, we were able to observe robust learning of an octave of note positions in just 15 minutes. This new direction of research could have important implications for real-world music education.
ISITE-Industry joint projects
One crucial parameter to evaluate the state of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI) is the viability of the myocardial segment, i.e. if the segment recovers its functionality upon revascularization. MRI performed several minutes after the injection of a contrast agent (delayed enhancement-MRI or DE-MRI) is a method of choice to evaluate the extent of MI, and by extension, to assess viable tissues after an injury (in conjunction with the
thickening of the muscle evaluated from cine-MRI). The main objective of the project ADVANCES is to automatically detect the different relevant areas from cardiac DE-MRI (the myocardial contours, the infarcted area, the permanent microvascular obstruction area, and the border zone of the myocardial infarction), and then to quantify MI. The segmentation methods are based on deep learning approaches and several networks are designed to produce good segmentations. For that, an expertised database with several hundreds of exams (with manual contouring of the different areas on each image) has been created from cases coming from the University Hospital of Dijon. After validation in a clinical environment of the developed proof of concept, the proposal will be integrated in the QIR software dedicated to the automatic post-processing of cardiac MRI (software managed by the CASIS Company). Then a software solution that solve a major issue in cardiac imaging and usable in clinical practice will be presented. One can assume that the improved clinical diagnostic lead to a better patient care.
Recently, immunotherapies using monoclonal antibodies targeting checkpoints inhibitors of the immune response, such as PD-1, demonstrated their superiority compared to standard chemotherapies. However, despite the strong contribution of anti-PD-1 (nivolumab) in some cancer treatment, this immunotherapy is not effective in all patients, and predictive biomarkers of treatment efficacy are needed for efficient patient management. To date, no predictive biomarker for the therapeutic efficacy of nivolumab has clearly been identified. The assessment of PD-L1 expression in tumours by immunohistochemistry has been proposed but suffers several drawbacks such as choice of antibodies, biopsy samples availability, temporo-spatial heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression, other PD-1 ligands expression… Recent translational studies suggested that the level of tumour infiltrated CD8 T Lymphocytes may be a better marker than PD-L1 expression. In this context, the aims of the BIOCAIR project are: i) to obtain a proof of concept of the use of radiolabelled anti-CD8 fragments as imaging biomarkers of the efficacy of immunotherapies such as anti-PD-1 ii) to identify at least 3 new biomarkers as potential biomarkers of immunotherapy efficacy, iii) to develop antibodies against these targets and validate them as imaging biomarkers of immunotherapy effectiveness.
The multidisciplinary and translational BIOCAIR project, coordinated by the GIE Pharmimage, combines the skills and know-how of several UB labs (ICMUB UMR 6302, LNC U1231, LIIC EA7269), the University Hospital of Besançon (CHRU), the anti-cancer center of Dijon (CGFL) and a private company from the Bourgogne Franche-Comté region (Diaclone).
UBFC Junior Fellowship
The current proposal, entitled « Neural Plasticity and Mental Actions », is part of the three main domains defined by ISITE-BFC: Soins individualisés et intégrés. This research in Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences focuses on the neural plasticity in humans induced by motor imagery. Motor imagery is the mental representation of the desired movement, without executing it. My research proposal aims at determining the neural components at play during mental training. The goal is to explain how our system changes following such training. By means of complementary techniques, we test the implication of the different stages of our system, from the brain to the muscles, going through the spinal cord. This research is performed in the INSERM U1093 laboratory Cognition, Action and Sensorimotor Plasticity at the Dijon Sport Science Faculty.
12:30 to 1:30 PM: LUNCH BREAK
The main objective of the BIONANOCAR project lies in the development of bioresorbable nanocarriers characterized by a long-lasting circulation time in order to plentifully exploit the promising potential of the ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for image-guided radiotherapy. For achieving this goal, two different strategies based on different nanocarriers will be explored. The first one rests on the grafting of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles which exhibit high potential for radiotherapy guided by simultaneous PET/MR imaging onto iron oxide nanoflowers while the second strategy will consist in the encapsulation of these gold nanoparticles in PLGA nanoparticles. The role of the bioresorbable nanocarriers is not restricted to the transport of the radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles. Indeed, nanoflowers are expected to behave as negative (T2) contrast agents for MRI and nanoheaters for magnetic hyperthermia while PLGA nanoparticles allow the co-encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with chemotherapeutic drugs.
Eating in nursing home implies a redefinition of the meal, from the point of view of the nursing staff which are subjected to specific constraints connected to hygiene and nutritional frame, but also from the point of view of the residents who are subjected to the medicalization of food consumption, to the changes of practices and to the redefining of the commensality. In their survey carried out in nursing homes with in-house kitchen, the sociologist P. Cardon and the anthropologist E. Souternon observed that the institution’s kitchen was often perceived as a “black-box” by the residents.
A first step of the project consisted in carrying out semi-directive interviews with older people living at home or in a nursing home as well as well as co-creation sessions with nursing home staff. The analysis of verbatim revealed that choice is an important factor to keep older people involved in the meals: choice of meal time, place, guests, but also choice of what I want to eat. In addition, keeping older people engaged in their meals does not only involve gestures (carrying out food-related activities such as shopping, cooking) by also sustaining the desire to eat by offering “good” meals at a sensory, physical and social level (tasty food, pleasant environment, conviviality…). Finally, it is interesting to note that the older respondents have stressed the importance of communication between the residents and the nursing staff. Older people has claimed the right to give their opinion on meals, menus, recipes… to better tailored the food supply to their expectations and preferences.
UBFC Junior Fellowship
The concept of this project is to demonstrate new strategy for wave control for functional devices and new metamaterials. First, the cloaking mechanism, initiated by the transformational optics, has been theoretically extended via richer constitutive models. Second, the required mechanical metamaterials for transformational elasticity, such as Cosserat or Willis metamaterials have been studied. We have further fossed on general mechanical metamaterials and have even pursue in the field of topological transport.
Nanotechnologies is a fastly growing field from both industrial and scientific point of views. The recent emergence of many innovative materials and nano-objects with outstanding characteristics goes with the need to study them and also to combine them to form more complex arrangements such as NEMS, nano-sensors or nano-optical devices. Among existing characterization to manufacturing techniques (self-assembly, chemical synthesis, electron beam lithography, mobile nanoparticules…), the use of nanorobotic platforms recently demonstrate extremely high interest through achieving, in an original way, nanomanipulation and nano-assembly tasks offering disruptive characterization and nanomanufacturing potential. Nevertheless, these nanorobots rely on tools initially developed for microscopy or microscale robotics purposes that have been derived for nanorobotics tasks. Then, intrinsic limitations induce numerous remaining issues to overcome the need of resolution and precision and also dexterity and control of multi-Degrees-of-Freedom trajectories.
Based on FEMTO-ST expertise for miniaturized robotics, the NANOFACTORY project aims at developing a new generation of nanorobot able to achieve highly performing tasks with high repeatability for nanoscale characterization, prototyping of novel nanotechnologies up to the manufacturing of new hybrid or assembled nanodevices.
The basic concepts of this disruptive nanorobot generation relies on complex spatial and automated motions in a versatile and ease of use manner at the nanoscale. A new class of parallel continuum microrobots is notably being investigated and first results already demonstrated the capability to provide extremely high manipulation ability and high accuracy (better than 10 nm is targeted). Original vision based algorithm providing multiple Degrees-of-Freedom measurement with wide range to resolution ratio also enabled to achieve very high positioning accuracy tasks within a Scanning Electron Microscope. Works notably conducted to achieve several and efficient Carbon Nanotubes manipulation tasks in a unique and accurate way conducting to original and disruptive ways of analysing properties.
The IQUINS project (Integrated Quantum Information at the NanoScale) aims at developing new techniques of quantum information processing in order to integrate them at the nanoscale, typically via quantum plasmonics and the realization of an advanced integrated photonic plateform. Conducted by a pluridisciplinary team of 18 researchers from 5 laboratories (ICB, FEMTO-ST, UTINAM, IMB, LMB) and on three sites of UBFC (Belfort-Besançon-Dijon) , the second objective of the project is the emergence of a highly visible UBFC Quantum Information group. To achieve the scientific objectives of the project and to create a Quantum Information community, three topics have been identified: The geometry of quantum computation (geometric study of entanglement and contextuality), Quantum control (a theoretical framework for nanostructured environments) and Integrated systems (integrated single photon source). After recalling the conditions that made it possible to have a quantum information group at UBFC, I will cover some of the results obtained with a special focus on the new directions that appeared during the project.
After the end-Permian mass extinction (~252 Ma), marine environments are usually considered as highly depauperate, especially for benthic organisms. The recent discovery of a new paleontological locality from the earliest Spathian of the western USA basin challenges this commonly assumed scenario. This assemblage –the Paris Biota– unveils a spectacular and unexpected diversity and complexity showing a mix of primitive species from the early Paleozoic and first direct ancestors of modern forms. The Early Triassic is therefore a crucial interval in the development of modern ecosystems and the western USA basin shows a key fossil record for the understanding of their establishment. This project is devoted to determine the spatio-temporal extent of the Paris Biota as well as environmental conditions that influence its formation and preservation. Our recent fieldworks lead to the discovery of several other exceptional assemblages of similar or slightly younger age, and geographically distant within the western USA basin. These works, indicating that the Paris Biota was not an exception, provide new information on paleobiology, paleoenvironment and the preservation of these organisms. They also question their actual diversity and abundance, which are obviously still largely underestimated although they are key parameters for developing accurate post-crisis rediversification scenarios.
3:00 to 3:30 PM: BREAK
UBFC Junior Fellowship
The Earth climate varies at many different temporal and spatial scales. Associated mechanisms are also of different nature, either linked to the internal dynamics of the system, to the perturbation induced by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, or to external factors like irregularities in the orbits of the planets. Each timescale is characterized by a specific predictability, allowed by the inertia of the atmosphere, ocean, or that of the chemical composition of the atmosphere, which can allow us to anticipate, to some extent, part of these climate fluctuations. Here, we focus on the physical mechanisms responsible for the predictability of the Southern African climate, for timescales spanning from the synoptic scale of weather forecasts, to decadal variability and ongoing climate change.
4:30 to 5:45 PM: POSTER SESSION